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Now Available: 2020 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES) Results for Housing Units and Puerto Rico
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Post-Enumeration Surveys

The purpose of the Post-Enumeration Survey is to measure the accuracy of the census.  The survey measures the accuracy of the census by independently surveying a sample of the population.

The U.S. Census Bureau has used post-enumeration surveys with dual system estimation to measure coverage in the Decennial Censuses of Population and Housing since 1980. This approach involves case-by-case matching of persons in an independent survey with persons in the census to determine who was missed or counted in error.


  • 2020
  • 2010
  • 2000
  • 1990
  • 1980

The post-enumeration survey-based coverage measurement program associated with the 2020 Census was called the Post-Enumeration Survey (PES).

On this page:


The 2020 PES was designed to support national-level and state-level estimates of census coverage.

The primary goal of the 2020 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES) program was to measure coverage error in the 2020 Census such that this information could be used to improve the coverage of future censuses. Fieldwork for the 2020 PES began in January 2020 and ended in February 2022.

Product Releases

PES Results for Puerto Rico and Housing Units (Released August 16, 2022)

PES Results for 50 States and Washington DC (Released May 19, 2022)

PES Results for Nation and Demographic Groups (Released March 10, 2022)

Additional Documents


pdf Presentation: Understanding the Count: A Discussion on the Latest 2020 Post-Enumeration Survey Results [<1.0 MB]
Provides an overview of coverage estimates for people of the United States by state and census operations, presented: May 19, 2022.
pdf Presentation: Post-Enumeration Survey Overview [<1.0 MB]
Provides an overview of the survey, presented during the National Advisory Committee Spring Meeting: May 6-7, 2021.
pdf Presentation: 2020 Post-Enumeration Survey Update [<1.0 MB]
Describes changes because of the COVID-19 pandemic, early response rates and how we’re addressing correlation bias, presented during the Census Scientific Advis
pdf Presentation: 2020 Census: Post-Enumeration Survey [<1.0 MB]
Presented during the JASON Winter Study: 2020 Census Quality Process Assessment: January 7, 2021.
pdf Presentation: 2020 Post-Enumeration Survey Update [<1.0 MB]
Presented during the Federal-State Cooperative for Population Estimates Meeting: September 23, 2020.
pdf Presentation: Post-Enumeration Methodology [<1.0 MB]
Provides an overview of PES methodology, presented during the Census Scientific Advisory Committee Meeting: September 17–18, 2020.

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Page Last Revised - August 17, 2022
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