Working papers are intended to make results of Census Bureau research available to others and to encourage discussion on a variety of topics. They have not undergone a review and editorial process generally accorded official Census Bureau publications.
List of working papers by series.
Justice-involved Individuals in the Labor Market since the Great Recession
This paper examines how individuals convicted of a felony or released from prison have fared in the labor market since the Great Recession.
Geographic Spines in the 2020 Census Disclosure Avoidance System
This paper describes the three geographic spines that are currently implemented in the TopDown Algorithm
Earnings Inequality and Immobility for Hispanics and Asians: An Examination of Variation Across Subgroups
Earnings inequality for Asian and Hispanic population aged 18-45 is constant or slightly decreasing for the long-term immigrant and native-born populations.
2020 Census User Experience Survey Report
This report documents findings from a follow up survey to measure the public’s satisfaction with the online 2020 Census questionnaire.
ACS Due Dates Test
This report discusses the results of an experiment testing the use of a due date in the ACS mail materials.
Evaluating Administrative Records as a Potential Sample Frame for the National Survey of College Graduates
This paper uses an extract of administrative records from the National Student Clearinghouse to examine the coverage of the NSCG sampling frame.
Climate Change, The Food Problem, and the Challenge of Adaptation through Sectoral Reallocation
Extreme temperatures have small effects on manufacturing productivity, suggesting a potential role for sectoral reallocation in climate change adaptation.
Import Competition and Firms’ Internal Networks
We document cross-sectoral propagation of Chinese import competition through firms’ internal networks; this novel channel has important aggregate implications.
Incidence and Performance of Spinouts and Incumbent New Ventures: Role of Selection and Redeployability within Parent Firms
We examine the role of selection processes in the incidence and performance of spinouts and new ventures formed by incumbents.
Evaluating Administrative Records to Inform Measurement Error Properties of National Survey of College Graduates Estimates: An Analysis of the NSCG-LEHD Earnings Ratio
This paper compares earnings responses on the NSCG to administrative earnings data from the LEHD.
The Color of Money: Federal vs. Industry Funding of University Research
Does it matter whether research is funded by government or industry? For research outputs like patents and high-tech startups, the answer is yes.
Evaluating the Master Address File—Auxiliary Reference file (MAF-ARF) as a Potential Respondent Retention Source
This paper uses administrative records on residential histories to follow survey respondents to the NSCG over time.
Developing Content for the Management and Organizational Practices Survey-Hospitals (MOPS-HP)
This paper describes how the content for the Management and Organizational Practices Survey-Hospitals was finalized based on cognitive testing and past surveys.
Evaluating Administrative Records to Inform Measurement Error Properties of National Survey of College Graduates Estimates: Employment History and Firm Characteristics
This paper compares survey responses on employment and employer characteristics to administrative records from the LEHD.
Small Business Pulse Survey Estimates by Owner Characteristics and Rural/Urban Designation
Producing research estimates of the Small Business Pulse Survey by owner characteristics and rural/urban locations and associated challenges.
Immigration and the Demand for Urban Housing
This study estimates housing demand among immigrants and discusses how immigration may be altering the structure of US urban areas.
How Collateral Affects Small Business Lending: The Role of Lender Specialization
Lenders specialize in collateral and adjust their portfolio following a shock towards specialized collateral, impacting firm credit access and employment
Productivity Dispersion, Entry, and Growth in U.S. Manufacturing Industries
Combining productivity growth data from the BLS with DiSP and BDS data, we examine the relationships between entry, dispersion, and productivity.
Leapfrogging the Melting Pot? European Immigrants’ Intergenerational Mobility Across the 20th Century
This paper details educational attainment among early 20th century European immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts across three linked family generations.
Bayesian Analysis of Singly Imputed Partially Synthetic Data Genera...
Bayesian Analysis of Singly Imputed Partially Synthetic Data Generated by Plug-in Sampling and Posterior Predictive Sampling Under the Multiple Linear Regres...
Comparing Earnings Outcome Differences Between All Graduates and Title IV Graduates
This paper shows how the differences in the frames for PSEO and College Scorecard explains differences in estimates, especially for mid-career earnings.
Empirical Study of Two Aspects of the Topdown Algorithm Output for...
Empirical Study of Two Aspects of the Topdown Algorithm Output for Redistricting: Reliability & Variability (August 5, 2021 Update)
Immigration and Local Business Dynamics: Evidence from U.S. Firms
This paper analyzes the effect of immigration on business entry and exit decisions and its consequences for job creation and productivity.
A Search and Learning Model of Export Dynamics
We develop and estimate a model of firm-level export dynamics with costly customer search, endogenous market visibility, and learning about product appeal.
Measuring All-Cause Mortality with the Census Numident File
This paper describes and assesses the quality of the population-level US mortality data in the Census Numident.
Measuring U.S. Fertility using Administrative Data
Census Bureau makes restricted-use administrative birth data available through the Census Numident for nearly all U.S. births for more than the last century.
A Note on the Locational Determinants of the Agricultural Supply Chain
We explore the location decisions of several food and agricultural industries for employer and non-employer establishments.
Heavy Tailed, but not Zipf: Firm and Establishment Size in the U.S.
We estimate the best-fitting distributions of firm and establishment sizes. We find better alternatives to the commonly used Pareto, even far in the upper tail.
Child Care Subsidies and the Labor Force Outcomes for Working Married Mothers
Using Census data and administrative records, this study finds that child care subsidies improve labor force outcomes for working married mothers.
School Discipline and Racial Disparities in Early Adulthood
We utilize novel data to document the links between high school discipline and important young adult outcomes.
Combining Rules and Discretion in Economic Development Policy: Evidence on the Impacts of the California Competes Tax Credit
We study the impacts of a large state economic development program on job creation using ACS data.
The Impacts of Opportunity Zones on Zone Residents
We examine the early effects of OZs on employment, earnings, and poverty of zone residents using ACS data.
Empirical Study of Two Aspects of the TopDown Algorithm Output for ...
Empirical Study of Two Aspects of the TopDown Algorithm Output for Redistricting: Reliability & Variability
Evaluating Wealth Data in Wave 4 of the Redesigned 2014 SIPP
This paper supports the careful use of SIPP data by researchers by examining how changes to the 2014 SIPP affected wealth data quality over the Panel.
Black Entrepreneurs, Job Creation, and Financial Constraints
We document that Black-owned businesses tend to be more credit constrained than White-owned ones, leading to lower firm employment.