Skip Header
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Now Available: 2020 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES) Results for the 50 states and District of Columbia.

Demographic Analysis (DA)

Demographic Analysis (DA) is a method used to evaluate the quality of the census. We use current and historical vital records, data on international migration, and Medicare records to produce national estimates of the population on April 1 by age, sex, the DA race categories, and Hispanic origin. The DA population estimates are independent of the decennial census. The results are used to produce estimates of net coverage error, which are calculated as the percent difference between the census counts and the DA population estimates.

Traditionally, the DA estimates have been produced by sex and single year of age for the race categories Black and non-Black. Starting in 2010, the DA program produces estimates by Hispanic origin (Hispanic/Non-Hispanic) for a limited number of ages. New data sources, changes in the racial and ethnic make-up of the nation, and evolving patterns of international migration present both challenges and opportunities for DA.

1990 Demographic Analysis
  • 2020 Demographic Analysis
  • 2010 Demographic Analysis
  • 2000 Demographic Analysis
  • 1990 Demographic Analysis
1990 Demographic Analysis

Demographic Analysis (DA)

The U.S. Census Bureau used DA to measure coverage in the 1990 Census. The 1990 Census total was 248.7 million while the DA estimate was 253.4 million. This implied a net undercount of 4.6 million or 1.85 percent.

External Publications

Himes, Christine L., and Clifford C. Clogg. "An overview of demographic analysis as a method for evaluating census coverage in the United States." Population index (1992): 587-607.

Woodrow-Lafield, K.A. An analysis of net immigration in census coverage evaluation. Population Research and Policy Review 14, 173–204 (1995).


Back to Header