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Decennial Census Official Publications

The census tells us who we are and where we are going as a nation. The census helps our communities determine where to build everything from schools to supermarkets, and from homes to hospitals. It helps the government decide how to distribute funds and assistance to states and localities. It is also used to draw the lines of legislative districts and reapportion the seats each State holds in Congress.

For access to volumes not available, please contact your local Federal Depository Library.

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Information about the 1900 Census

The twelfth census of the United States was conducted under the terms of the census act of March 3, 1899, and supervised by the Director of the Census, William R. Merriam. The enumeration was conducted in each state and organized territory, including Washington, DC, Alaska, Hawaii, and “Indian Territory.”1 The census was taken as of June 1, 1900, and was to be completed in 2 weeks in places of 8,000 inhabitants or more (as of the 1890 Census) and 1 month in rural districts. The United States and its territo­ries were divided into 297 supervisors’ districts, which were subdivided into 52,726 enumeration districts.

The enumeration of military and naval personnel (with in the country and abroad) was conducted through the Departments of War and the Navy. Similarly, the enumeration of the “Indian Territory” was carried out in cooperation with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Large institutions (pris­ons, hospitals, etc.) were enumerated through the appointment of special “institution” enumerators.

Enumerators were much more closely supervised during the 1900 Census. In large cities, special agents were appointed to assist the census supervisor. Enumerators used “street books,” in which a record of each enumerator’s work was made on a daily basis. Enumerators used individual census slips for obtaining a correct return for any person (particu­larly lodgers and boarders) absent at the time of the enumerator’s visit.

Additionally, “absent family” schedules were used for securing a complete record for any person residing within the enumeration district, but temporarily absent.

1 Censuses were not conducted until 1890 of Indian Territory. Alaska’s first census was conducted in 1880. Hawaii was annexed by the United States on August 12, 1898. Therefore, the 1900 Census was the first census of the islands taken under the supervision of the United States. The Hawaiian Government, however, did conduct censuses every 6 years, from 1866 to 1896.

Final Reports

1900 Census: Volume I. Population, Part 1
Contains the population of states, counties, places, urban and rural areas, sex, nativity, color, birth place, foreign parentage, citizenship and years in U.S.

1900 Census: Volume II. Population, Part 2
Contains ages (by sex, nativity, color, etc.), males of militia and voting age, marital status, school attendance, illiteracy, ability to speak English, etc.

1900 Census: Volume III. Vital Statistics, Part 1
Tables giving the statistics of deaths by conjugal condition and occupation in relation to causes of death, with analysis of the results, and the ratio tables.

1900 Census: Volume IV. Vital Statistics, Part 2
Population and deaths at each census, 1850 to 1900, and deaths by cause, sex, color and race, nativity, age and sex, birthplace of mothers, and month of death.

1900 Census: Volume V. Agriculture, Part 1
Agricultural progress of fifty years; principal source of income, value of farm products, labor, fertilizers, domestic animals, cattle, dairy cows, horses, etc.

1900 Census: Volume VI. Agriculture, Part 2
Stats on crops such as number of farms, tenure of farmers, production, acreage, yield and value. Irrigation stats for arid, semiarid and humid areas, etc.

1900 Census: Volume VII. Manufactures, Part 1. Industries
Stats for specific industries include number of establishments; capital in land, buildings, machinery; power; wage earners and wages; value of product; etc.

1900 Census: Volume VIII. Manufactures, Part 2. States and Territories
Summary analysis of manufactures for each state and territory and five tables giving comparative summary by states and territories.

1900 Census: Volume IX. Manufactures, Part 3. Selected Industries
Special reports for manufactures of cotton, wool, silk, clothing, buttons, tobacco, ice, glass, and products from numerous other industries.

1900 Census: Volume X. Manufactures, Part 4. Selected Industries
Special reports on industries with one or more metals as the chief raw material, and chemicals, petroleum, coke, gas, wastes, by-products, and related patents.

Related Information

Page Last Revised - December 16, 2021
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