The census tells us who we are and where we are going as a nation. The census helps our communities determine where to build everything from schools to supermarkets, and from homes to hospitals. It helps the government decide how to distribute funds and assistance to states and localities. It is also used to draw the lines of legislative districts and reapportion the seats each State holds in Congress.
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The 1960 census began on April 1, 1960, in accordance with the requirements of an act of August 31, 1954 (amended August 1957), which codified Title 13 of the United States Code. By mid-April, 85 percent of the population of the United States had been enumerated with the count up to 98 percent by the end of the month. Several notable changes were made in the procedures for taking and tabulating the census. These changes were: 1) the greater use of sampling, 2) the development of procedures enabling most householders an opportunity to consult other members and available records when completing the questionnaire for their families, and 3) the use of electronic equipment for nearly all data processing work. 1
Sampling. In the 1960 census, a 25-percent sample was used. The greater use of sampling meant that the totals for some of the smaller areas were subject to a moderate amount of sampling variation, the usefulness of the statistics was not significantly impaired. Using a 25-percent sample of households eliminated nearly 75 percent of the processing expenses otherwise required for the items in the sample.
Enumeration procedures. The 1960 enumeration was divided into two stages—the first concentrating on quick coverage of the population and the collection of a few items for every person and dwelling unit, and the second devoted to the collection of the more detailed economic and social information required for sample households and dwelling units. Both stages used questionnaires left at the residence to be filled out by one or more members of the family.
The enumeration began prior to April 1, 1960,when an advance census form was delivered by the U.S. Postal Service to each household. The time between delivery of the form and the arrival of an enumerator to collect the household’s information allowed the household to assemble information needed to respond to the census inquiries.
Shortly after April 1, 1960, the second stage of the enumeration began. Enumerators made their rounds to collect the census data and left an additional form—containing the sample inquiries—at every fourth house visited. Households receiving the sample form were asked to complete the form and mail it to their local census office in the postage-paid envelope provided by the enumerator. When these mailed questionnaires were received at the census office, Census Bureau personnel checked the sample forms for accuracy and conducted telephone or personal inquiries to complete unanswered inquiries when necessary.
This two-stage enumeration was believed to be advantageous in that, in the past, enumerators were given only brief special training and were burdened with more instructions and work than they could effectively manage. By creating a two-stage enumeration the field work and training were reduced. Approximately one-third of the enumerator work force was retained for work in the second stage—receiving additional training that focused solely upon the content of the sample questions.
In specified areas (about 15-percent of the total population, characterized as living in areas of low population density and/or having inferior road networks), the two staged enumeration was combined, so that the enumerator collected and recorded sample data in the same interview in which the 100-percent inquiries were recorded.
1 A. Ross Eckler, “Plans for the 18 th Decennial Census,” presented at the annual meeting of the Rural Sociological Society, Cornell University, August 27, 1959. Pp.3-6. Morris H. Hansen, “Procedures for the 1960 Census of Population and Housing,” presented at the annual meeting of the American Statistical Association, Chicago, Il, December 1958.
1960 Census: Population, Women by Children Under 5 Years Old
Characteristics shown are: age, race, nativity, country of origin, education, marital status, age at first marriage, occupation, income in 1959, and housing.
1960 Census: Population, Childspacing
National stats on births to women by successive ages and successive intervals since marriage, on intervals between births, and on birth rates for past years.
1960 Census of Population: Selected Ethnic Groups, 5 Southwest States
This report presents social and economic characteristics of the major ethnic groups of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as Defined on May 1, 1967
This report provides data on the population for the 228 standard metropolitan statistical areas, and includes the revisions in and additions to May 1, 1967.
1960 Census of Population: Age at First Marriage
This subject report presents statistics on age at first marriage, times married, difference in age between husband and wife, ethnic origin, education, etc.
1960 Census of Population: Marital Status
This subject report presents statistics on education, race, parentage, occupation, earnings, etc. for married couples.
1960 Census - Negro Population, by County 1960 and 1950
The distribution of the population by regions, divisions, States, and counties, giving the total, nonwhite, and Negro population and the % change 1950 to 1960.
1960 Census of Population: Labor Reserve
This subject report presents statistics on the skills of the labor reserve as represented by occupation, age, education, and other characteristics.
1960 Census of Population: Nonwhite Population by Race
This subject report presents statistics on social & economic characteristics of each of the nonwhite races – Negroes, Indians, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos.
1960 Census: Nativity and Parentage of the Foreign Stock
Data are shown separately for native persons of native parentage, native persons of foreign or mixed parentage, and foreign-born persons.
1960 Census: Population, Mother Tongue of the Foreign Born
Stats by age, sex, color, years of school completed, and country of birth for the U.S. and regions. A distribution is shown for States and certain SMSAs.
1960 Census: Population, Puerto Ricans in the United States
Stats on age, residence in 1955, years of school completed, school enrollment, marital status, relationship to head of household, employment status, etc.
1960 Census: White Persons of Spanish Surname in 5 SW States
Stats on age, birthplace and parentage, residence in 1955, years of school completed, school enrollment, marital status, relationship to head of household, etc.
Population of Voting Age and Votes Cast for President 1964 and 1960
This report provides statistics, by States, on the population of voting age, and on votes cast for President, 1960 and 1964; also for counties, 1960.
National Census Survival Rates, by Color and Sex, for 1950 to 1960
This report provides census survival rates, 1950 to 1960, for: Total population of the United States, by color and sex and total Negro population, by sex.
1960 Census: Age of the Foreign Stock by Country of Origin
Of the 34 million persons of foreign stock, about 10 million were foreign born and the remaining were natives whose mother or father or both were foreign born.
1960 Census: Per Capita and Median Family Income in 1959
Mississippi ranked lowest in per capita ($967) and median family income ($2,884). Nevada was highest per capita ($2,356). Alaska was highest median ($7,305).
1960 Census: Population, Distribution of the Negro Population
Three maps show the geographic distribution of the Negro population of the U.S. in 1960 as well as the distribution of gains and losses between 1950 and 1960.
1960 Census - Population, Labor Reserve
The labor reserve is 21.8 million persons (15 million women and 7 million men) or 17% of the population l4 years old and over.
1960 Census of Population: Persons by Family Characteristics
This report presents statistics on persons by the composition and the social, economic, and housing characteristics of the families of which they are members.
1960 Census of Population: Sources and Structure of Family Income
This report presents statistics on the income in 1959 of families cross-classified by type & size, source of income, number of earners, and age & color of head.
1960 Census of Population: Educational Attainment
This report presents statistics on years of school completed by the population 14 years old and over, in relation to ethnic status, and other characteristics.
1960 Census of Population: School Enrollment
This subject report presents statistics on the personal and family characteristics of persons enrolled in school or college and of those not enrolled.
1960 Census of Population: Socioeconomic Status
This report presents statistics on two measures of socioeconomic status in relation to selected demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics.
1960 Census: Low Income Families
The 1959 median family income of $5,700 was $2,600 above 1949. Stats by age, color and sex of head for the 9.7 million families with incomes under $3,000.
1960 Census: Family Income in Metropolitan Areas
About 15% of the 28.6 million families living in standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's) in 1960 reported money incomes of less than $3,000 in 1959.
1960 Census: Size of Family Income
Of the 45.1 million families, 9.7 million, or 21%, received total money incomes of less than $3,000 in 1959. About 54% received incomes of less than $6,000.
1960 Census: Population, Size of Place
Stats by sex, color, nativity and parentage, state of birth of the native population, country of origin of the foreign born, year moved into present house, etc.
1960 Census: Subject Guide to Data for Negro Population
The guide shows the types of data available, the geographic detail for which they are presented, and the specific report in which they have been published.
1960 Census of Population: Type of Place
This area report presents statistics on the numbers, the structure, & characteristics of the population of States by urban-rural & metropolitan-nonmetropolitan.
1960 Census of Population: Veterans
This subject report presents statistics on selected social and economic characteristics of the male veteran population by age and period of service.
Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Population: 1960
This report describes the relationship of socioeconomic status to selected demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population.
1960 Census of Housing Vol V. Residential Finance
1960 Census of Housing statistics on the financing of nonfarm homeowner properties.
1960 Census of Housing Vol VI. Rural Housing. Economic Subregions
Cross-tabulations of housing and household characteristics for rural housing units in the United States and its 121 economic subregions.
1960 Census of Housing Vol. I. States and Small Areas
Detailed data on the characteristics of housing units for the U.S., regions, and divisions, with separate statistics for units inside and outside SMSAs.
1960 Census of Population: Families
This subject report presents statistics on the composition and demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics of families.
1960 Census: Population, Fertility of Women by Number of Children
National, regional and State stats on the fertility of women in terms of their number of children ever born, by characteristics of the women and their families.
1960 Census: Population, Occupational Characteristics
Data on age, color, sex, residence in 1955, school enrollment, educational attainment, marital status, household relationship, number and age of children, etc.
1960 Census: Place of Work and Means of Transportation
About 83% of the workers living in the central cities also worked there, about 9% commuted to the outlying suburban ring and about 2% worked outside the area.
1960 Census: Fertility of the Population
The current average is already 17% above the lifetime average of about 2,140 children per 1,000 women needed for replacement of the population.
1960 Census Population, State Economic Areas
Stats on age and households relationship, by color; birthplace, mobility status, and family status; children ever born, education, and employment status; etc.
1960 Census of Housing Vol II. Metropolitan Housing
All housing—urban and rural, farm and nonfarm—with separate statistics for owner-occupied, renter-occupied, and available vacant units.
1960 Census of Population: Mobility for Metropolitan Areas
Stats on changes in residence within and between the 101 standard metropolitan statistical areas and on the influx of people from nonmetropolitan areas.
1960 Census of Population: Mobility for States & State Economic Areas
Demographic, social and economic characteristics on population mobility in the period 1955 to 1960 for persons 5 years old and over.
1960 Census of Population: State of Birth
Stats include cross-classification by age, color, sex, and State of residence in 1960, for the U.S., by metropolitan-nonmetropolitan residence, regions, etc.
1960 Census of Population: Lifetime and Recent Migration
This subject report presents statistics on the population by state of residence in 1960 by geographic division of birth and of residence in 1955.
1960 Census of Population: Migration Between State Economic Areas
This subject report presents statistics on the streams of migrants between State economic areas and between economic subregions in the period 1955 to 1960.
1960 Census of Population: Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas
This selected area report presents statistics on the growth and characteristics of the population of standard metropolitan statistical areas.
1960 Census: Population, Income of the Elderly Population
Income in 1959 of family members and unrelated individuals 65 years and older, by family status and sex, for the U.S., States, and SMSA’s of 250,000 or more.
1960 Census: Population, Inmates of Institutions
Stats by age, color, and sex of inmates in types of institutions, for the U.S., States, and each standard metropolitan statistical area of 500,000 or more, etc.
1960 Census: Population, Occupation by Earnings and Education
National and regional stats on the earnings of males 18 to 64 years old cross-classified by educational attainment, age, and color in selected occupations.
1960 Census of Population: Employment Status and Work Experience
This subject report presents statistics on employment status at the time of the census and on work experience in 1959.
1960 Census of Population: Journey to Work
This subject report presents statistics on the patterns of commuting in SMSA's of 250,000 or more, and the characteristics of commuters.
1960 Census of Housing, Vol IV. Components of Inventory Change
This report presents statistics on counts and characteristics of changes in the housing inventory.
1960 Census of Housing, Vol VII. Housing of Senior Citizens
Housing characteristics of units having persons 60 years old and over and statistics on the characteristics of these persons.
1960 Census: Annexations and Growth of Population in SMSAs
The 212 SMSAs in 1960 had a population of 112.9 million persons, 58 million in central cities and 54.9 million outside central cities in the remaining areas.
1960 Census: Population of Congressional Districts
The apportionment based on the 1950 Census allocated 435 Representatives to the 48 States then in existence. The admission of Alaska and Hawaii added two more.
1960 Census of Housing Equipment: Counties
This report presents data on equipment-- clothes washing machines, clothes dryers, home food freezers, telephones, automobiles.
1960 Census: Employment Status, Weeks Worked, Occupation
This supplementary report presents statistics on employment, unemployment, weeks worked, occupation, industry, and class of worker from the 1960 Census.
1960 Census: Income of Families and Persons in the U.S.
The average money income of families rose substantially from 1949 to 1959, gaining $2,600, or 84%, to $5,700. The gain in real purchasing power was about 50%.
1960 Census: Geographic Mobility of the Population
Of the 159 million persons 5 years old and over living in the U.S. in 1960, 49.9% was living in the same house he had been living in five years earlier.
1960 Census of Housing, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas
This report presents statistics on housing characteristics for the United States, territory inside and outside standard metropolitan statisical areas (SMSA's).
1960 Census: School Enrollment and Educational Attainment
There were 42.7 million persons 5 to 24 years old enrolled in regular public and private schools and colleges in 1960, about 13.5 million more than in 1950.
1960 Census: Children Ever Born to Women 15 to 44 Years Old
Women of childbearing age in 1960 had borne 25 percent more children, on the average, than women of the same age range in 1950.
1960 Census: Supplementary Reports: Place of Work and Transportation
Public transportation, which was a major means of travel for the urban population forty years ago, was reported by only 12 percent of all workers.
1960 Census: Households, Married Couples, and Families
In 1960, households numbered 53.0 million and the average size was 3.29 persons. There were 40.5 million married couples and 45.1 million families.
1960 Census: Population, Place of Birth of the Population of the U.S.
From 1900 to 1960, the foreign-born population declined from about 14 percent to 5 percent of the U.S. population.
1960 Census: Population, Age of the Population of the United States
The median ages of the white and nonwhite population in 1960 were 30.3 and 23.5 years, respectively.
1960 Census: Population, Population of Congressional Districts
The House of Representatives reverted from 437 to 435 members for the 88th Congress, with 22 elected at large and 413 representing specific districts in States.
1960 Census: Industry Group by Occupation
This supplementary report presents a cross-classification of industry groups by occupation based on the results of the 1960 Census.
1960 Census: Population, Birthplace and Country of Origin
Of the 179.3 million persons in the U.S., 19 out of 20 were born here. Of the 169.6 million natives, 119.3 million, or 70%, were living in their State of birth.
1960 Census: Population, School Enrollment of the U.S.
There were 41.4 million persons age 5 to 20 enrolled in regular schools in the U.S. (excluding Alaska and Hawaii), double the 21.3 million enrolled in 1920.
1960 Census: Population, Mobility of the Population, by Age
In April 1960, 73% of the population 20 to 29 years old had moved at least once since April 1955. As age increased, this percentage decreased to a low of 27%.
1960 Census: Population, Veterans in the United States
The 23 million vets were younger, more mobile, and had higher average income than nonvets. About 40% of all civilian males 14 years old and over had served.
1960 Census: Population, Population by Single Years of Age
Stats by nativity, color, and sex reflect past trends in births, deaths, and migration. Date of birth rather than completed years of age was the source of data.
1960 Census: Industry of the Experienced Civilian Labor Force
This supplementary report presents national data on industry by selected demographic and economic characteristics based on the results of the 1960 Census.
1960 Census: Social and Economic Characteristics, for P.R.
Stats on place of birth, residence in 1955, school enrollment, education, literacy, ability to speak English, fertility, employment, occupation, industry, etc.
1960 Census: Employment Status, Weeks Worked
Between the ages of 30 and 39, the male labor force rate reached a peak of 96%, while women peaked at 50% at age 19, then declined in their twenties.
1960 Census: Educational Attainment of the U.S. Population
In 1960, the median number of years of formal schooling by adults (age 25+) was 10.6 years, up from 9.3 in 1950, and 41% completed high school, up from 34%.
1960 Census: Income in 1959 of the Population of the U.S.
Men 35 to 44 had average (median) money income of $5,465, compared to $2,039 for women of the same age range.
1960 Census: Families in the United States
In 39.6 of the 45.1 million families, the head was a married man with wife present and of these families 23.5 million had own children living in the household.
1960 Census: Marital Status of the Population
In 1960, 81 million married persons lived together, 5 million lived apart, 10 million were widows or widowers, and 3 million were divorced.
1960 Census: Population, Vol. I. Characteristics of the Population
Each part has 308 tables on number of inhabitants, general population characteristics, general social and economic characteristics and detailed characteristics.
1960 Census: Series PHC(1). Census Tracts
This report presents statistics by census tracts on population and housing characteristics enumerated in the 1960 Censuses of Population and Housing.
1960 Census of Housing, Housing Characteristics—States
This report presents selected housing characteristics for each standrad metropolitan statistical area (SMSA) and each place of 10,000 inhabitants or more.
1960 Census – Population of Standard MSAs: 1960 and 1950
Stats on the 212 SMSA’s in the 50 States and the District of Columbia, and three in Puerto Rico. This report supersedes Preliminary Report PC(P3)-4).
1960 Census: Population of the U.S. and Outlying Areas
Outlying areas include Puerto Rico and outlying areas of U.S. sovereignty or jurisdiction, together with members of the Armed Forces and other Americans abroad.
1960 Census: Urban and Rural Population of the U.S.
The population not classified as urban - persons living in places of 2,500 or more, the densely settled urban fringe, etc. - constitutes the rural population.
1960 Census: Population of Urbanized Areas: 1960 and 1950
Individual urbanized areas have proved to be useful statistical areas. Table 22 shows the population and land area of urbanized areas.
1960 Census: Population of Cities of 10,000 or More
The population of four cities--Long Beach, Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York--are by assembly districts. Cities not divided into wards are excluded.
1960 Census: Rank of Cities of 100,000 or More
In 1960, 130 cities had 100,000 inhabitants or more, up from 106 in 1950. The proportion of people living in cities this size declined from 29.3% to 28.3%.
1960 Census: Population of Cities of 25,000 or More
In 1960, 676 cities had 25,000 inhabitants or more, up from 481 in 1950. These cities had a combined population of 76.0 million, or 42% of the total.
1960 Census: Population of Towns and Civil Divisions in N.E.
In the six New England States, the towns and other minor civil divisions are of greater governmental significance than in most of the other States.
1960 Census: Race of the Population of the U.S. by States
The white population of the United States increased by 17.5 percent between 1950 and 1960, as compared with 26.7 percent for the nonwhite population.
1960 Census: Age of the Population of the U.S. by States
For the first time in the recorded history of the U.S., the median age declined during an intercensal period, from 30.2 years in 1950 to 29.5 years in 1960.
1960 Census: Marital Status of the U.S., by States
A record 67.4% of persons 14 years and older were married in 1960 compared to 66.6% in 1950 and 59.6% in 1940.
1960 Census: Household Relationship of the U.S., by States
There were 53.0 million households in the U.S. in 1960, 11 million more than in 1950. Children under 18 years of age were 34.2% of the household members.
1960 Census: Pop for Guam, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Canal Zone
There were 53.0 million households in the U.S. in 1960, 11 million more than in 1950. Children under 18 years of age were 34.2% of the household members.
1960 Census: Population and Characteristics for Puerto Rico
Comparable statistics for 1950 and earlier censuses are shown in some of the 17 tables.
1960 Census of Housing, Special Reports for Local Housing Authorities
Characteristics of housing units defined as substandard by the Public Housing Administration and characteristics of families occupying these units.